Social Empowerment
Introduction
Social empowerment is the extent to which the personal capabilities of individual people and their ability to act are enhanced by social relations.

Empowerment’ means to enable people to control the personal, communal and social environment to foster their own development over the environment as well as accessing the environment to enrich their socio-personal life

Empowerment is here defined as the realisation of human competencies and capabilities, in order to fully participate in social, economic, political and cultural processes. This reflects Mayo and Craig's notion of empowerment as a tool for democratic transformation . Community empowerment – enabling communities to develop their own potential – has both internal and external connotations . Internally, communities need a strong sense of identity to be empowered and they must have a strong common volition for empowerment. There are two facets of empowerment necessary to maximise internal community social quality: passive and active empowerment. Its passive connotation relates to a community being enabled or facilitated in its empowerment, often through the extent of its social integration through normative structures and associational networks . Its active connotation is strongly associated with 'team membership', leadership and positive community identity as exemplified in the British women's Black Pride movement .

Indicators
Social indicators can serve a range of purposes related to vision, budgeting, community mobilisation, agency accountability and public education . By considering changes over time, social indicators are a critical tool in the development, assessment and monitoring of social policy. They can describe, in quantitative and qualitative terms, the level of social development achieved in a particular society and the current extent of social problems.

  • Political empowerment
  • Economic empowerment
  • Socio-psychological empowerment
  • Information empowerment
  • Social mobility

Social empowerment requires both that the objective conditions exist and that individuals have the ability to make use of the opportunities available to them. Empowerment is both a conditional factor for socioeconomic security, social cohesion and social integration and an outcome of their existence. There are three dimensions to empowerment – access, participation and control.

Domains

Sub Domains

Social Indicators

Knowledge base

Application of knowledge

-% own PC

Availability of knowledge

-% internet subscribers

 

-No of internet users; internet users per 100 inhabitants

 

-Estimated PCs per 100 users

 

(DOS, Malaysia)

Personal relationships

Provision of services supporting physical and social indepoendence

-% of national and local budget devoted to disabled people (mental and physical )

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