When things are made of all the same substance, they are vulnerable to problems that affect that material. By using a combination of materials, synergistic effects can be created where the different materials used not only contribute their different properties, they also act together to provide something that is better than any individual part.
A. Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials.
- Composite epoxy resin/carbon fiber golf club shafts are lighter, stronger, and more flexible than metal. Same for airplane parts.
- Fiberglass surfboards are lighter and more controllable and easier to form into a variety of shapes than wooden ones.