ARIZ: Algorithm of inventive problem solving
Introduction
Algorithm of inventive problem solving (ARIZ) is a part of theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) developed by Genrich Altshuller. ARIZ consists of a program (sequence of actions) for the exposure and solution of contradictions, i.?. the solution of problems. ARIZ includes: the program itself, information support supplied by the knowledge base, and methods for the control of psychological factors, which are a component part of the methods for developing a creative imagination. ARIZ is intended not only for the solving difficult (not standard) problems, but also for development inventive (creative, system) thinking. The inventive thinking is thinking through contradictions. Thinking at which reveals an original causes (roots) of a problem.

ARIZ included three basis components: program, information support and methods for the control of psychological factors.

The path to the idea of solution
The definitive basic procedure for the solution of problems with ARIZ can be represented in the following manner:
    SC >>>> IC >>>>> IFR >>>> AC >>>> SOLUTION

To formulate of all its links, first of all reveal that which does not suit the "poser" of the problem in the given situation (superficial contradiction - SC) and what is faulty in the system (undesirable effect). What kind of requirements are necessary to expect from the system? The superficial contradiction (SC) is described either as a need for the appearance of a new quality or action "A" (positive effect), or in the form of a harmful effect (anti-B), which it is necessary to eliminate.

Thus the intensified contradiction (IC) is determined. For the determination of intensified contradictions (IC), we expose two contradictory requirements of the system. We represent these requirements with the letters "?" and "?." The intensified contradiction can be presented as a need for the improvement of characteristics satisfying requirement "?," which leads to the unacceptable deterioration of characteristics satisfying requirement "?".

The result of expressing the system in this manner constitutes the formulation of the ideal final result - IFR.The formula of the ideal final result (IFR) should aim to eliminate the harmful effect (anti-B), while preserving the positive requirement "?,"

After comparison of the actual situation and the IFR, obstacles to the achievement of the ideal result are revealed, reasons for the appearance of the obstacles are sought, and the contradictory qualities that appear in certain parts of the system (operative zones) and do not satisfy the requirements of the IFR are determined. In this manner the aggravated contradiction (AC) is formulated, which constitutes the exact formulation of the problem.

The aggravated contradiction (AC) is determined by exposing contradictory properties "P" and "anti-P" (for example, physical), which should be possessed by the element of the system that does not correspond with the requirements of IFR. For this it is necessary to determine what property "P" the element should possess in order to preserve requirement B, i.e., in order to eliminate the undesired effect

Example
Finding a person buried beneath an avalanche in the mountains is very difficult. Many activation devices have been created for this purpose, like a transmitter that emits a signal in the area where the buried person lies. But all of these devices are not capable of working in the actual conditions of an avalanche. First of all, few tourists will agree to carry a transmitter "just in case." Secondly, the batteries that power the transmitter quickly lose their charge, and even if the emergency signaling device can be turned on only at the necessary moment, this is usually impossible when buried in snow. What can be done?

SC – it is necessary to minimize the mass of the device for detecting snow-covered victims and to make it capable of operating for a long period of time. But reduction of the dimensions of the transmitter is accompanied by the reduction of its energy capacity and operating period – this is the undesired effect.

IC – reduction of the mass and dimensions of the transmitter is achieved at the expense of decreasing the mass of the energy source, i.?., at the expense of shortening the time of uninterrupted work.

IFR – the transmitter works without an energy source for any length of time.

AC – the energy source should be large in order to preserve a long operating period for the transmitter, and small (zero), in order not to increase the dimensions and mass of the transmitter. Or – the energy source should exist and not exist.

Solution – The Swiss firm "Sulab" created a device that consists of a metal bracelet, which is given to everyone who goes into the mountains. The bracelet consists of a passive receiver device with an antenna of metallic foil, but no energy source or transmitter. The foil antenna receives the signal of the rescuers, which has a powerful transmitter. Its power is sufficient to excite a current in the bracelet, as it is done in crystal detector receivers. The current is fed by a nonlinear circuit, which doubles or halves the frequency of the signal and transmits it by means of the very same foil antenna. The rescuers listen to the reflected signal on a doubled or halved frequency and, using a directional antenna, can determine from where the signal is being emitted. The system works constantly, even if the person buried in an avalanche is unconcious, and the period of time the system can work is unlimited by a battery that could fail, because it doesn’t exist.

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