Hygiene Theory: Herzberg
Introduction
Motivation-Hygiene theory is considered a major work in the field of job satisfaction that has been attributed to Herzberg and his associates, Mausner and Peterson. The theory has been also called the two-factor theory, and the dual-factory theory. This famous motivation-hygiene theory is built on Maslow's need hierarchy theory.

According to this theory, specific things provide job satisfaction for the worker and other things dissatisfy the worker. The satisfiers provide the worker some sort of psychological pleasure. The dissatisfiers are things that concern the condition under which the work is done and how the worker is paid. Herzberg groups these factors into satisfiers and dissatisfiers.

The original research, used to develop the theory, was conducted with 203 accountants and engineers employed in nine manufacturing firms in the Pittsburgh area. Using an individual approach facilitated by a semi-structured, critical incident interview technique, each engineer was asked to think of times when felt well about the jobs. Each subject was then asked to describe the conditions that led to those feelings. Herzberg repeated the same approach with a wide variety of other employees. Results obtained from the critical-incident method were fairly consistent across the various subjects.

Motivators / Job Satisfiers
Reported good feelings were generally associated with the job itself, content, intrinsic, or psychological factors. These included:
  • Achievement
  • Recognition for achievement
  • The work itself
  • Responsibility
  • Advancement, and growth.

Herzberg named these contents factors "job satisfiers" or "motivators" because they fulfill an individual's need for psychological growth.

Job dissatisfier or "hygiene" factors
Reported bad feelings, on the other hand, were generally associated with the environment surrounding the job context, extrinsic, or physical factors. These included:
  • Company policies
  • Supervision
  • Interpersonal relations
  • Working conditions and Salary

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